Effective January 1, 2009 certified hay is required on all US Forest Service lands in Washington and Oregon. Failure to meet these requirements can result in fines and/or imprisonment.
Click here for some FAQs about the WA Wilderness Hay and Mulch (WWHAM) Program and about Weed-free Forage on Forest Service Land
Weed-free Feed Required in Northwest Forests
PORTLAND, OR As part of a larger effort to reduce invasive species on national forest lands, weed-free feed
is being required in the 17 national forests and the Crooked River National Grasslands of the Pacific Northwest
this year. This follows a requirement in 2007 that weed-free feed be used in Pacific Northwest Wildernesses.
Livestock owners and others will be required to use feed that is either commercially processed feed or crop
products certified to be free of weed seeds. Officials will concentrate on education and compliance this year,
until signage and outreach efforts are fully implemented with stricter enforcement to follow.
The new requirement says that all hay, cubed hay, straw, mulch, and other such products used or stored on
national forest lands be state certified as weed free. Crop products often contain seeds of non-native weeds that
germinate on public lands and damage their health and beauty. Non-native weeds such as leafy spurge, spotted
knapweed, yellow star thistle, and others are alien to the United States and have no natural enemies to check their
Oregon and Washington have developed certification processes for crop products. Hay fields are inspected to
ensure that listed noxious weed seeds are absent. Once a field passes this inspection, hay and other crop products
from the field are labeled as "certified weed-free." Commercially processed feed (pellets and steamed, rolled
grains) are not affected by the order and should be used in the affected national forest lands if certified hay
products are not available.
For more information, visit www.fs.fed.us/r6/weeds
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
March 16, 2009
WEED-FREE FEED AND STRAW
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
USDA FOREST SERVICE, PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGION
Q. What is required under the new Forest Service regulation?
A. All hay, hay cubes, straw, grain, and other crop or mulch products brought on to National Forest land in
the Pacific Northwest Region must be certified "weed free" using North American Weed Management
Association (NAWMA) standards, or better, regardless of how they are used (livestock feed, bedding,
erosion control, mulch, etc.).
Note: National Forests in the Pacific Northwest Region, primarily in Oregon and Washington, also
include small adjacent portions of Idaho (Wallowa-Whitman NF) and California (Rouge River-Siskiyou
Q. Why is it necessary for the Forest Service to require the use of weed-free hay or crop products on
all National Forest System lands in these states?
A. Forage and mulch products sometimes contain seed or reproductive parts from non-native, invasive and
noxious weeds. Resulting weed populations degrade the health of native ecosystems. Wildlife habitat,
soil and water quality, rangeland, economic values and beauty of the land decline as a result. National
Forest lands are among the areas most vulnerable to impacts from weeds and are also, in general, where
prevention of infestation is most likely to succeed. A rule requiring the use of certified weed free feed
and other crop products is one of the effective tools for minimizing the spread of invasive plants.
Q. What is meant by the term "weed-free feed" or "certified crop products"?
A. Weed-free hay or crop products have been inspected according to standards used by the North American
Weed Management Association (NAWMA) and member states. Under NAWMA standards, fields are
inspected to ensure the absence of seed and reproductive parts from listed invasive weed species. Fields
which pass the inspection are state certified and the producer may then officially label the products as a
weed-free hay or crop product. In a like sense, state certified weed-free mulch comes from fields that
pass inspection and are then state certified and labeled for use in restoration and re-vegetation projects.
Q. Exactly what types hay or crop products are included in the closure order requirement?
A. The closure order requires use of hay, hay cubes, straw, grain or other crop or mulch products that are
certified as weed-free. Commercially processed feed pellets or steamed, rolled grains are also allowed
under this order. They are considered weed-free feed and need not be state certified (see additional
information about commercially processed feed below).
Q. Where do I get certified hay and straw products in Oregon and Washington?
A. The State of Oregon Department of Agriculture has established their certification program and growers
have participated around the state. More growers will join the program as the demand for product
increases. For a list of providers in Oregon, please see:
or call (503) 986-4620. In addition, Wallowa County has had a certification program for weed-free hay
and crop products that is sanctioned by Oregon and North American Weed Management Association.
Please contact the Wallowa County Extension Office at (541) 426-3143.
The Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, in cooperation with county weed boards, manages
the inspection and certification program in Washington. It is referred to as the Washington Wilderness
Hay and Mulch (WWHAM) program and is approved by NAWMA. For information and a list of
providers in Washington, please see: http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/index.htm
or call (360) 902-2053
Q. Are livestock feeds the only products which are subject to the closure order?
A. While hay and similar crop products are most often associated with livestock feeding, they are also used
as mulch for erosion control, bedding, and other uses. The closure requires that all hay, hay cubes,
straw, grain or other crop or mulch products, regardless of how they are used, be state certified as weedfree,
when used or stored on National Forest System lands.
Q. Why are feed pellets or steamed and rolled grains allowed, while non-certified hay cubes are
A. Feed pellets are made by finely grinding the ingredients, heat treating, and then compressing into
pellets. This process kills a very high percentage of viable seed that may be in the source ingredients.
Similarly, steaming and rolling grains kills most viable seeds that may be present, including those of
invasive, noxious weeds. While commercial processing feed may not in all cases eliminate all weed
seed, feed pellets and steamed rolled grains are considered a reasonable option for preventing invasive
and noxious weed spread.
Q. Is there such thing as state certified hay cubes?
A. Yes. Some states, including Colorado, have developed a process and a market for the development of
state certified hay cubes. These cubes are made from state certified hay that is traceable back to the
field of origin where the inspection occurred. State certified hay cubes are sold in bags which have
sewn-in tags, designating the cubes as state certified. If no tag exists on the bag, hay cubes cannot be
considered state certified.
Note: Oregon and Washington currently do not have a process for certifying hay cubes.
Q. Does certification of hay or crop products guarantee that no invasive, noxious weeds will be found
in the product?
A. No. Certification is simply the most feasible way to minimize the risk of viable invasive and noxious
weed seed being transported within hay or crop products. When fields are inspected, they are inspected
for invasive and noxious weeds which presently contain, or could within the next ten days produce,
viable seed. Weed leaves and stems may occur in state certified products, but the intent is to minimize
the risk of seed or reproductive parts transport.
Q. Does the order apply to me if I am simply passing through National Forests or National
A. No. As long as hay or crop products are not unloaded or otherwise used on National Forest System
lands or the Crooked River National Grassland, the order does not apply.
Q. Does the order apply only on National Forests and National Grasslands, or do other public lands
in Oregon and Washington have the same requirement?
A. Currently, there is no requirement for the general public visiting BLM land in Oregon to use only
certified weed free feed, but BLM does use certified weed free hay and straw during projects that it
conducts. Only processed feed pellets are permitted in the National Parks in Oregon and Washington.
No other feed types are permitted; including rolled or steamed grain, loose hay or hay cubes. Oregon
and Washington State Parks do not require certified weed-free feed at their horse camps and trailheads.
Q. Are there penalties for violation of these closure orders, and how will the orders be enforced?
A. Yes, there are penalties for violation under the statutes listed on the closure order. Following
the period of adjustment and education, violations of the closure order prohibitions are
punishable by a fine of not more than $5,000 for an individual or $10,000 for an organization
or imprisonment for not more than 6 months, or both (16 U.S.C. 551 and 18 U.S.C 3559 and
Q. Am I required to buy certified forage or straw from the same state in which the National Forests I
intend to visit are located?
A. No. Many adjacent states (Idaho, California, Nevada, Montana, et al.) have acceptable certification
programs with similar weed lists and certification standards. Refer to the North American Weed
Management Association web site for a full list of participating states: http://www.nawma.org/
Products certified in any of these states, and bearing the appropriate official labeling or twine, qualify as
certified forage or straw products under this closure order. It is important to note that California also
has a Weed Free Forage Program that is acceptable under this order, but is not a member of NAWMA.
California products that have been inspected, but that do not have appropriate tags, twine, or certificates
indicating the certification are not acceptable under this order. No hay or crop products coming from
any states without a certification program meeting or exceeding NAWMA standards can be used on
National Forest System lands in the PNW Region.
Q. Who conducts the inspections and how is certified forage or straw labeled?
A. Hay or straw is inspected in the field of origin by trained, certified inspectors. Inspectors check the
fields of hay and straw growers within ten days prior to harvest. Standing crops found to be free of
listed noxious weed seed are then harvested and marked with the legal certification labeling of the state
or county. Examples of certification labels include:
Oregon white tags, purple and yellow twine, transit certificates
Washington white tags, purple and yellow twine, transit certificates
Idaho white tags, purple and yellow twine
Montana red tags, blue and orange twine, blaze orange label on bags
California colored twine and tags, product certificate, transit certificates
Colorado blue and orange twine
Wyoming blaze orange tags, purple and yellow twine
Q. For which weed species are fields and products inspected to achieve certification?
A. The fields are inspected for the presence of seed or reproductive parts of weeds from the NAWMA list,
plus any additional weeds identified by the respective state.
Q. Do certified hay or straw products cost more than uncertified products?
A. The cost of certified hay or straw products can be somewhat higher and the price will likely vary with
location and availability.
Q. Where do I find more information on certified hay or straw products?
A. The following websites and contacts may provide information on weed free forage. Your local feed
dealer or State Extension Service office may also be able to provide you with information.
? Oregon Dept. of Agriculture Commodity Inspection Division; (503) 986-4620 or website:
? Wallowa County Extension Service, Enterprise, Oregon at 541-426-3143
? Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board: http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/index.htm
or call 360-902-2053
? California: Call 916-445-6214
? Idaho State Dept. of Agriculture at 208-332-8592 or at website:
? Montana Dept. of Agriculture at 406 444-7819 or http://www.agr.state.mt.us/weedpest/nwsff.asp
? Nevada Dept. of Agriculture at 775-688-1180 ext. 269 or
? Colorado at 303-239-4149 or http://www.ag.state.co.us/DPI/WeedFreeForage/weedfree.html
For more information on the national weed-free certification program and standards, please refer to the
North American Weed Management Association: at http://www.nawma.org/ or (970) 887-1228.
Q. How can a producer get their crops state certified or get information about their states
A. If your state has a program, the websites and phone numbers above may be used to learn how to become
a participant in the program.
Q. What other steps can recreational stock users take to minimize the spread of noxious, invasive
A. Feeding animals exclusively with commercially processed feed pellets, steamed rolled grains,
or certified hay one or more days before your trip will not only help you be sure your stock can
eat these products, it will also help prevent transport of weed seed in stock manure. You can
also help by making sure your vehicles, trailers, boots, and your animals coat and feet (both
stock and dogs) are cleaned of weed seeds prior to your trip. Finally, keeping vehicles on
roads and in designated parking areas also helps minimize the spread of weeds.
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